Saturday, July 30, 2016

First World War Anniversaries in Scotland

Two items just notified from Scotland's People, of relevance to the real history of the war:

[1.] The first march by the Women’s Peace Crusade - Glasgow, 23 July 1916
One of the big centenary celebrations taking place in Scotland this year is the anniversary of the first march of the Women’s Peace Crusade. The first march of the Women’s Peace Crusade took place in Glasgow on 23 July 1916, with 5,000 people attending this demonstration against the First World War. Working-class women played a prominent role in the Crusade, with Helen Crawfurd (1877-1954, her maiden surname was Jack), the ‘Red Clydesider’ who had also led the Glasgow Rent Strikes of 1915, one of the movement’s leaders.

To mark the centenary of the Peace Crusade march in Glasgow, we thought we’d highlight a record that offers an interesting insight into Helen Crawfurd’s home life. So here is an entry from the 1911 Census, which shows Helen (aged 33) living at 38 Sutherland Street in Govan (in the parish of Partick), with her husband, Alexander (aged 82, a retired Church of Scotland minister), and Annie Laughland (nee Crawford), presumably a daughter from Alexander’s first marriage. It’s interesting to note that the 1911 Census entry spells Helen’s married surname as Crawford, not Crawfurd.

And elsewhere: Women's Peace Crusade in Lancashire
A correspondent writes:
Please note that a group of volunteers are making a film about the 1917-1918 Women's Peace Crusade in East Lancashire with money from the AHRC. Lots of new material has been uncovered from local archives - huge processions in Nelson, riots in Oldham and Blackburn, hats torn off and women demonstrators attacked. It has become clear that local Crusades were organised by women weavers often linked to CO families. In Nelson in particular, the COs were nearly all ILP men.  
[It is planned] to write a little booklet too about each town that has been researched - Rochdale, Manchester, Oldham, Nelson, Burnley,Bolton and Blackburn. 
The film will be made by the Clapham Film unit who made These Dangerous Women - a short film about the failed British delegation to The Hague International Congress of Women in April 1915. You can watch it on YouTube. 
We will be filming in late September/early October. We went to Glasgow to be part of their celebrations and work alongside them. 

 One of the WPC handbills
 - It was censored and seized in a raid on the local Manchester WIL [Women's International League for Peace and Freedom] offices in Autumn 1917 and at the same time a number of house were raided too - possibly local 'safe' houses for COs?  There are 6 handbills in the John Rylands library in Manchester. 

The 'peace button' was sold on all the Crusades.

[2.] ‘The North of Scotland Special Military Area’ - designated on 25 July 2016
On 25 July 1916, the area north of the Great Glen was declared ‘The North of Scotland Special Military Area’, and access to non-residents was restricted. Here are two contemporary reports [copied below] from ‘The Scotsman’ newspaper about the wartime travel restrictions that were introduced in north Scotland on that date.

The Scotsman July 18, 1916.
In future travellers to the North of Scotland will find their facilities somewhat restricted. Notice has been given that in exercise of the powers conferred upon them by the Defence of the Realm (Consolidation) Regulations, 1914, the Army council, with the concurrence of the Secretary for Scotland, have, by order, declared that on and after the 25th day of July a specified area, roughly north of the Caledonian Canal, will be a Special Military Area. The area in question includes the Burgh of Inverness and the whole of the mainland of Scotland which is situated to the north and west of the River Ness, Loch Ness, the road leading from Invermoriston Pier by Glenmoriston to Strath-cluanie and the river Shiel to Shielbridge, Loch Duich, Loch Alsh, and the Kyle of Loch Alsh. Except as otherwise provided by the regulation, no person shall on or after that date be allowed to enter the area without permission from the Commandant at Inverness. Permit books containing forms of application, and instructions as to how applications should be made are obtainable from any police station. Persons exempted from the provisions of the regulations include members of His Majesty's Forces, officials of the Crown, any person under the age of sixteen years, all dock-yard men employed in the area, and all persons who are or have been since the outbreak of war resident within the area.or in any part of the counties of Inverness, Ross, Elgin or Nairn.
In view of the agitation in some quarters for the closer supervision of aliens and naturalised foreigners, the military authorities are confident that in taking this step they will have the support of the public. That the new regulations will cause some inconvenience will be at once apparent. Something like a Continental frontier station is to be established at Inverness, where, unless the official permit is in order, anyone will be liable to be turned back. The railway companies will naturally be called upon to co-operate to some extent, and no ticket will he issued to the restricted area except to a person in possession of a permit. The official permit will require to contain a photograph of the holder. Adequacy of purpose will have to be proved before such a permit is issued. Although a tourist may be quite an innocent person, it is pointed out by the military authorities that there may be strong reasons for refusing permission to enter the military area. Cameron of Lochiel has been appointed Commandant at Inverness, and with his intimate knowledge of the district as an asset, it is expected that the regulations will be administered tactfully and with a minimum of friction.

The Scotsman, July 24, 1916.
The Secretary for Scotland forwards the following, through the Press Bureau, for publication:-

It is thought desirable to bring the following points to the notice of persons requiring to travel to places in the North of Scotland Special Military Area.
The area includes the town of Inverness and the mainland of Scotland lying to the north and west of a line proceeding from Inverness to Invermoriston Pier (Loch Ness): from Invermoriston Pier along the road to Shiel Bridge; and thence to the Kyle of Loch Alsh [Lochalsh] by Loch Duich and Loch Alsh. The restrictions applicable to this area come into force on the 25th instant.
Any member of the general public, desiring to enter the Special Military Area should apply to the police of the district in which he resides for the necessary forms on which to make application for a permit.
Two photographs of the applicant measuring not more than one and a-half inch square will be required. After obtaining the forms from the police he will have to forward his application to the Deputy Commandant, Special Military Area, Inverness, in whom the power to issue permits is vested.
Passengers will not be booked by the railway companies to stations north or west of Inverness unless they produce a permit to enter the Special Military Area.

The restrictions on the general public do not apply to persons under the age of 16 years or to persons who are and have been since 4th August 1914 ordinarily resident in the Special Military Area or in any part of the counties of Inverness, Ross and Cromarty, Elgin, or Nairn.

[The Special Military Area features in John Buchan's 1919 novel "Mr.. Standfast"]

Two recent blogposts cast a little more light on opposition to the war in Scotland:

*A First World War Conscientious Objector from Lewis* *Court-martialled on 11th July 1916* This blog has already looked at the cost to the Isle of Lewis of the First World War, and also at the situation of Conscientious Objectors (COs) to that conflict, in Britain generally and the London Borough of Ealing more particularly. Up until recently it has looked as though there were few if any Leodhasachs [Lewismen] who took the courageous and perilous path of conscientious objection when conscription was introduced in early 1916, although there were many who applied for exemption on other grounds
As well as Donald Maclennan, three other men from Lewis, as previously noted, appear on the Pearce Register. Their varying experiences in the First World War, according to the records on that database, are looked at here. In addition the Appeal Tribunal files for two of them have been consulted. 

Tuesday, July 5, 2016

Radical Housing in Tower Hamlets

New exhibition and events programme

Radical Housing in Tower Hamlets
20 June - 22 September 2016

Tower hamlets Local History are pleased to announce our next local history exhibition and events programme which will run for three months over the summer: Radical Housing in Tower Hamlets. From the rent strikes of the 1930s to the squatting movement of the 1970s and the formation of the first housing co-operatives, the fight for decent and affordable housing has a long history in London's East End.
Drawn exclusively from the archive and local history library collections and curated by  Learning & Participation Officer Perdita Jones, the upcoming exhibition will provide an overview of tenant action in Tower Hamlets, highlighting some of the key events and movements which have taken place over the last 100 years.

The exhibition was programmed to tie in with the conference Radical Histories; Histories of Radicalism organised by the Raphael Samuel History Centre, which took place next door to us at Queen Mary, University of London, from 30 June - 3 July.

So far confirmed are the events below to accompany the exhibition, with more being added to the programme over the next few weeks. All activities in the programme are free and take place at THLHLA, with the exception of the guided walk.

Tower Hamlets Local History Library & Archives
277 Bancroft Road

E1 4DQ
020 7364 1290

To book, please call 020 7364 1290 or email:

Exhibition Launch
Thursday 7 July 2016, 6:00 - 7:30pm

Join us for the formal launch of the exhibition with guest speakers to be announced. Free, no booking required.

Walk: Social Housing in Poplar
Tuesday 26th July, 7-9pm

Join Borough archivist Malcolm Barr-Hamilton for a walk exploring the history of social housing in Poplar. Limited space, booking essential.

Talk: East End Migrants and the Battle for housing 
Saturday 6th August, 2-3pm

Join academic and architect Sarah Glynn, who will talk about the struggle of Jewish and Bengali migrants for housing during the 1930s and 1970s respectively. Just drop in, no need to book. (past tense note: check out ...some very interesting stuff on housing struggles, rent strikes and more...)

Talk: Setting the Record Straight: housing politics and the archive
Thursday 18th August 6.30-7.30pm

Elena Carter, archivist, will explore how housing activists create and use archival resources to create a 'useful' past. Just drop in, no need to book.

Walk: Housing in Bethnal Green
Saturday 20 August 2016, 2:00 - 4:00pm

A guided walk exploring the housing heritage of Bethnal Green. Free, booking essential.

Film screening: Goodbye Longfellow Road
Saturday 17 September 2016, 2:00 - 3:30pm
A free screening of rarely seen 'Goodbye Longfellow Road' (1977, 78 mins), a documentary originally broadcast on ITV, telling the story of the residents of a Stepney street. Declared a slum in the 1930s, earmarked for demolition in 1943 but still inhabited in the 1970s: what happened when the bulldozers finally moved in?
No booking required.

Past Tense comments: 
"... Especially important at the moment with so much upheaval in East London, gentrification, displacement and deliberate dismantling of social housing, and the growing resistance from those being forced out and displaced."

Friday, July 1, 2016

Trying Times: More Anarchists in 1894, Part 2

Witnesses for the Defence.

WILLIAM MORRIS . I live at 26, Upper Mall, Hammersmith—I knew Cantwell as a member of the Socialist League, of which I was a member—I never heard him oppose acts of outrage, but such questions did not arise at that time—I am the author of this verse upon the placard—I knew Cantwell pretty well, as I should have known the other members of the league for some time, and my impression of him is that he was a very good-natured man; I should have thought he would not have done any harm to anybody or anything—he was, perhaps, rather rash, or boyish is the word I should use about him. (The COURT ruled that MR. FARRELLY could not ask the witness questions as to principles Cantwell had expressed formerly, or as to the meaning of the verse upon the placard.)
Cross-examined. I have not seen much of him lately—it is something less than five years since I left the Socialist League, but I have seen Cantwell since.

EVELYN GEORGE STRIDE . I live at 33, Calderon Road, Leytonstone, and am clerk to a foreign exchange broker—I was present at the Tower Hill meeting on 29th June—I saw Quin there—there was a good deal of interruption of his speech—it seemed as if the interrupters were interrupting purposely, as if they came for that purpose—I am not acquainted with the prisoners—I never saw them before the meeting—I come to give evidence because I saw a letter in the Weekly Times and Echo asking anybody who was present on 29th June to communicate with Mr. Bamford, the solicitor—I heard part of Quin's speech—I was there about five or seven minutes before the meeting broke up—I did not hear him say anything about bombs, or "Damn the Queen," or incite to murder anybody—I did not see him distribute pamphlets. 

Cross-examined. I arrived at the meeting about five or ten minutes before it closed—Quin was then speaking—he held in front of him the large yellow bill—I could read the largest letters—I do not approve of it—I did not hear the beginning of his speech—there was a good deal of interruption at the close—there seemed persistent cries from some of the crowd—I heard, "Shut up"—I did not hear, "Shoot them!" or "Lynch them!"—I saw Quin all at once disappear very quickly from the parapet—I don't know how it was; he might have been jostled off—I heard no reference to M. Carnot or France, or the things that had been done there, or that should be done there.

JOSEPH LEWIS . I live at 41, Buxton Street, Mile End New Town—I am a furrier, but having no employment in my trade my recent occupation is selling in the street—I was present at the Tower Hill meeting on 29th June, selling pictures and views in connection with the Tower Bridge—my attention was drawn by the crowd of people, and I went to sell my pictures—I was present during the whole of Cantwell's speech—I did not hear him use any violent language, or incite to murder, or use the word "bombs"—I stood ten or fifteen yards from the platform, on the fringe of the crowd—I could hear quite plainly, with the exception of some parts which I lost—I could hear as well as the ordinary crowd, I consider—I did not hear him say, "The deeds that have been done are not half bad enough to an extent," or "Perhaps there will be some more deeds worse," or "Make war against the blood-suckers"—I heard him say the workers were to organise against the capitalist—I did not hear him say, "Plenty in England to be served the same," or "There is a necessity these people should be removed," or "I will both fight and die: I shall be heard of tomorrow," or "The assassination of Carnot is fully justified," or "The Royal vermin should be served like other vermin" I heard him say, as far as I could understand, that the Royal Family should not open the bridge, but the workmen who built it—I did not hear the word "bombs" used—I did not hear, "They have done a good deed in assassinating Carnot," or "There will be some more of that," or "We have made ourselves felt in France, and will make ourselves felt here"—there was great uproar during the proceedings—I did not hear, "There are plenty Milling to die. I will lead them if they will follow"—I did not hear Quin inciting to murder—I did not hear, "We were heard of in France, and we will be heard of again and again," or "Out of a little harm great good will come"—I did not hear Quin say, "I hate the Royal Family"; he said he disliked the Royal Family—I did not hear him say, "D—the Queen"—I should recollect it most probably if I had heard it—I saw no pamphlets distributed, I am certain of that, because I should be the first man to hold out my hand for a pamphlet—I did not see any if they were distributed publicly.

Cross-examined. I have sold views and pictures daily for eight weeks—the last time I worked as a furrier was at Tibbett's, a leather merchant, about three months ago—I am not a speaker at these meetings; my views are against Anarchists—I am a Socialist—I speak at Socialist meetings when invited; I take no prominent part—possibly I spoke at an unemployed meeting in November last year upon the plea that I was unemployed, which I was—I have attended these meetings if I have been unemployed—I don't know that that has been often, with the exception of last winter, when I was out of employment—I attended the unemployed meetings in Hyde Park on one or two occasions—I attended the Tower Hill meetings last year—I may have spoken on Tower Hill just after Christmas, previous to my last employment—possibly I spoke there on 13th March, 1894—the burden of my speech was to endeavour to get the workers to organise to protect their own interests—I might have spoken in condemnation of the capitalist class; that was the subject-matter of my speech, for political action—I think I was unemployed in March—my principal occupation for the last year has not been attending meetings of the unemployed in Hyde Park and on Tower Hill; I may have been in work some days and not others—I was on the fringe of the crowd on this occasion; it grew large as it went on—I don't think there were three hundred or four hundred people—there was great confusion, but not among most of the people—I heard cries of "Lynch them" and "Lynch him," but the cries seemed to come from an individual throat—there was a surging mass of people moving towards the parapet, and then I believe Cantwell got down after some time—I cannot say whether I saw Quin get down—I believe he was interrupted in his speech, and that was the reason he got down—the crowd said some very nasty things—one of the crowd used the word "bombs" as a question put to the prisoners, "Did they have a bomb in their pocket?"—I have heard abuse of the Royal Family on several occasions—I did not hear such abuse on this occasion; I am quite sure—I heard, "I dislike the Royal Family"; I do not look on that as abuse—I heard Carnot's name mentioned by one of the crowd, but no reference to him from the speakers—one of the crowd called out, "What about the murder of Carnot?"—I heard no answer to that; the noise was very great—I heard no reference to France—I heard words to the effect that the Tower Bridge was to be opened to-morrow by Royalty, but the workers were the right people to open it, because they built it. and the speaking was much in the same strain about the bridge—the speaker went on about the bridge being built by the workers, and they did not have the benefit of it and the opening of it; and then it seemed to turn a rowdy meeting, and what else was said was partly lost by the noise—all I heard clearly with reference to the bridge was that it should be opened by the workers instead of Royalty—Cantwell may have spoken from twenty minutes to half an hour—I don't say I have given all he said; that was all I heard.

Re-examined. I am opposed to Anarchist ideas; I am subpoenaed here—there was a good deal of interruption at the meeting—my idea was there were three or four people there organised for the purpose of upsetting the meeting—I did not go for the sole purpose of attending the meeting—I had been selling there from ten in the morning—I was ten or fifteen yards from the prisoners, and there was room for four hundred or five hundred people to stand between me and them, because the place is very wide—I never spoke at a meeting till six or seven months ago—I had seen some of the organised interrupters at other unemployed meetings.

[Re-examined] By the COURT. I stayed to the end of the meeting—it ended in confusion—the whole of the meeting seemed to run away towards where the prisoners went—they followed the prisoners as quick as possible, and out of curiosity, I expect, to see what would happen to the prisoners—I did not follow them—I did not think the crowd would lynch them; they followed them just the same as any opposition at an ordinary meeting.

SAMUEL JOHN PARKHOUSE . I live at 32, Branscombe Road, Acre Lane, Brixton, and am a hackney carriage driver—I have been a police constable in the P and D Divisions—on 29th June I was on Tower Hill with my cab, on the rank—I heard the prisoners speaking from the parapet—I did not hear them incite to murder, or use the word "bomb"—I had never seen them before—I did not hear them say, "The deeds that have been done are not half bad enough to an extent; we must make war against the blood-suckers; plenty will be served the same in England; it will be necessary to remove the heads of States"—I heard something about the working classes, that they would not put up with the capitalists—I did not hear, "They have done a good thing in assassinating Carnot"—I heard them say, "We shall be heard of again"—I thought they meant the next day—I saw some pamphlets in the crowd—I did not see either of the prisoners distributing them—I did not hear Quin say, in reference to the assassination of Carnot, "Out of a little harm great good will come," nor about using bombs—I did not hear him say, "I hate the Royal Family"—he said, "There is quite as good in the meeting to go and open the Tower Bridge to-morrow as the Royal Family"—I did not hear him say," D—the Queen."

Cross-examined. There was some uproar during Quin's speech among the crowd—I could hear pretty plainly—I did not hear Quin's speech—I was on my cab, twenty-five yards away—I could hear pretty well what he said—I have said what I did hear—there were 300 or 400 people, I should think—two or three people seemed to annoy the rest; they kept interrupting the speakers—Cantwell got down, because the crowd swayed towards him—there were two or three agitators in the crowd who were annoyed at him delivering his speech—I don't know the agitators' names—they were agitating against the prisoners—I could not say they were annoying the rest of the people—I believe Quin was pulled off the wall by the agitators—I did not see the prisoners run for their lives; they ran away, and the crowd followed up—they could not run very fast, with such a crowd round them—I could not say they ran away; the whole crowd went after them, because, I suppose, the agitators going after them, the crowd followed, as they usually do—I heard Cantwell's speech fairly well, considering the noise—I heard him say, "The working classes will not be depressed by the capitalists," and "We shall be heard of again"—after that he made some remarks about the Tower Bridge opening to-morrow; that was the next thing—he had said it before, but he brought it forward again—I am positive I did not hear the word "bomb" used by anybody—somebody called out "bomb," but it was not the prisoners—I did not hear any reference to Monsieur Carnot by anyone—Cantwell made some reference to France, saying "The Government of France has been oppressive, and other Governments will have to be come at in some way; we shall have to make them come to the working classes"—I did not hear him say, "M. Carnot, the President of the Republic, has been assassinated, and there will have to be something of the same kind here, in order to get the working classes' rights"—I left the police in 1878, because I lost a sister-in-law who was on board the Princess Alice, and I went to the Inspector and asked him to let me off that night, to make arrangements, and he would not allow me off, and so I took leave, and I was compelled to resign.
Re-examined. When the crowd moved after the prisoners the agitators were pushing about among themselves.
"Gothic style drawbridge opened on 30th June 1894."
Scene of protests past and recent, not quite as it was then: 
 surroundings may have changed but the spirit of revolt survives.

JOHN ROCHE . I am a seaman—I was present at the meeting on Tower Hill the day before the opening of the bridge—I was selling medals of the Tower Bridge and photographs of the Prince of Wales—I was present during the whole of the prisoners' speeches; they stood on the parapet of the Tip-Top Tea Company's warehouse—I should say Cantwell spoke about half-past one or two, as near as I could guess—I did not hear either of them incite to murder, nor use the word "bomb"—I never saw them before till that day—Cantwell did not say, "The deeds that have been done are not half bad enough"—I did not hear him use the French President's name at all—he did not say, "We intend to make war"—all he said was "The Royal Family is coming down here to open the bridge to-morrow, and the public and the working men have more right to be on the Tower Bridge and open the bridge than the Royal Family, because the Prince of Wales is only living on the sweat of the brow of the working men"—I did not hear him say, referring to the assassination of Carnot, "There are plenty in England to be served the same," nor "It is a necessity that these people should be removed"—I was there throughout the whole proceedings—I did not hear him say, "I will both fight and die," nor "The Royal vermin should be served like other vermin"—I did not hear him say anything about Royal vermin—he did not say, "They are only fit for bombs"—I heard someone in the crowd say, when Cantwell was speaking, "If old Hawkins had hold of you he would make warm work of you, and you ought to be before him"—someone in the crowd not far from me shouted "Another Le Caron," referring to the man who said that Cantwell ought to be before old Hawkins—I did not hear Cantwell say, "They have done a good thing in assassinating Carnot; there are plenty willing to die; I will lead them if they will follow"—I went to Lockhart's coffee-rooms, after it was all over, and I noted down Quin's speech; not all of it; only what I could catch—I did not hear Quin say, "We were heard of in France, and will be heard of to-morrow and again and again," nor "Out of a little harm great good will be gained," nor "If I did use bombs, it would be for the benefit of the working men"—he said he did not like the Royal Family; he did not say he hated them—I did not hear him say, "D—the Queen"—if he had there might have been a rush on him.

Cross-examined. There was a rush upon him—if he had excited the public to murder he would not have been living, and in the dock now—the prisoners both ran away, and so would you if they had tried to kill you—the crowd ran after them—I went about my business—I went to Lockhart's for my tea a little after four, and then made a note of the speeches—at any public meeting I go to I take a bit of a note; it is a hobby of mine—I have been at a few meetings, not on Tower Hill—I was at the back of the crowd; there might have been more than 400 people—there was more shouting than disturbance—I cannot say why the crowd said the prisoners ought to be taken before Mr. Justice Hawkins.

DANIEL HANDS . I am a basket manufacturer, of 50, St. Paul's Road, Camden Town—this is Cantwell's knife—he has had it for eight years or more, using it for his work and other purposes—he was a basket maker—I have been in business about eleven years—Cantwell was extremely steady, hard working, and industrious—he worked for me for about four years—he made no concealment about this knife—I became acquainted with him when he was working in America—it is very usual to carry a revolver there—I am not an Anarchist, and have no sympathy with them—I belong to the Church of England—I know Cantwell perfectly well—he used to live and work in the same house with me in America and here.

Cross-examined. I know he has been connected with the Commonweal newspaper—I believe he has lived at 24, Sidmouth Mews—I know he spends a good deal of his time on the Commonweal, but I can't say what he does in connection with it—he has been connected with Socialists and Anarchists lately.
Re-examined. He has occasionally worked at his trade as well; I have had him to assist me when I have been busy—five or six weeks ago was the last occasion when he assisted me, I should say—I believe he used this knife then.

JOHN WILLIAMS . I live at 20, Collard Road, Walthamstow—I am a painter, in work—I was present at the unemployed meetings last winter on Tower Hill—I presided at the unemployed meeting on 16th January—Quin spoke; he requested my permission to do so—I was instructed by the executive to tell speakers that they were to keep to the question of the unemployed, and that no violent language was to be used—if violent language had been used I should have stopped the speaker, and denounced him—I have stopped speakers—I emphatically deny that the language, as given by Walsh, was used—when a speaker is up who does not belong to the Social Democratic Association, I never move from the parapet until he has finished, acting under the instructions of my committee—Quin might have told the meeting to adopt the principles of Christian Anarchism, as he was not a Socialist.
Cross-examined. I do not allow violent speaking as a rule, nor as an exception; I apply that rule to myself—I do not make strong speeches—I am prepared to stand by the police reports of all the speeches I have made—I believe I made a speech on 11th January, 1894, to the unemployed on Tower Hill, when Partridge and Hunter Watts were there—I did not say that I had said enough from time to time to put me under the care of the authorities; but that "I did not care one damn for Mr. Asquith or his satellites, and that I was fully prepared to run any risk"—Mr. Asquith has declared in the House of Commons that at all times I used such mild language that they could not get me within the power of the law—I said at that meeting that I was prepared to go to almost any length to compel the authorities to turn their attention to the unemployed question; that the only course open to the unemployed was to do something to bring them under notice, parade the streets, and they might depend upon it that, if one or two of them had to suffer, the majority would soon gain their object—I did not say I would do something to terrorise the capitalists—I don't think I asked my audience if they were prepared to strike terror into the hearts of the capitalists; I won't be too sure—I put it to them if any of them could be worse off if they were in prison, and they answered, "No"—I may have said, "Will you follow me one day next month?" and I daresay they said, "Yes"—I did not say, "We will go into Trafalgar Square, watch the divisions from which the police are drawn, and then go into the unprotected quarters and take those things you want;" nothing to that effect—I don't remember saying, "I will get up a scrimmage to create a diversion, and after the first scrimmage something will be done"—I won't swear I did not say it—I spoke at a meeting on 5th February this year—I did not tell the audience that they must remember they had chemicals on their side—I said, "The police have commenced their brutality; they must remember that science is not all on one side; science is also on the side of other men"—I did not say that they could make a small package for twopence, which, if carelessly laid down, would dispose of a few big constables, nor that a friend of mine had once said to me, "Send them to heaven by the chemical parcel post"—I said, "A friend of mine, in speaking of Joseph Chamberlain and other men, in addressing an unemployed audience, said that before these men would listen to opinions of those who were workless, they would have to be sent to heaven by chemical parcel post"—he was referring to those in power, I presume—I was speaking of John Burns, and I gave a quotation—I had been talking to the unemployed on the subject of how hard it was to get the authorities to listen to the claims of the unemployed, and then I said what my friend had told me—I did not say that my audience should not be armed with sticks, but with chemicals, which were much better—I did not ask them to go armed in future—I said that if the police were prepared to use violence on all occasions in the processions of the unemployed, the unemployed were, in my judgment, justified in using force—I said that they should not allow themselves to be kicked and stamped upon, as they were on Saturday, and they would be justified in using force to prevent it—I do not think I spoke at the meeting on 30th January—I abide by my view that something ought to be done by the unemployed, and that nothing would be done until the authorities are compelled to listen to their claims.
Re-examined. At the time John Burns said what I have given he was an unemployed leader.

GEORGE BANTING . I am a commercial traveller, of 125, Randolph Street—on June 29th, the day before the opening of the Tower Bridge, I heard Cantwell speak—he did not incite to murder anybody—I went to Tower Hill on business, and was there from one to 2.10 or 2.15—I do not know either of the prisoners—I saw a notice in the Echo from Mr. Bamford, saying that if anybody happened to be there, to come forward and state what they heard, and my wife said it was my duty to go—I stood in front of the speakers during the meeting, about the fourth row from the parapet—I heard all Cantwell's speech—I did not hear him say, "The deeds that have been done are not half bad enough in extent" referring to the assassination of M. Carnot, or "We must make war against the blood-suckers, "or" Plenty will be served the same in England," or "It will be necessary to remove the heads of States," or "Bombs shall be used," or "They have done a good thing assassinating Carnot"—I heard, "What about Carnot?" shouted out as an interruption to his address—I have it on my memory because I was anxious to know how anybody could justify the murder of Carnot—he said, "There are fanatics in every cause, and I am not here to defend them"—I have no recollection of hearing him say, "We shall be heard again and again"—I did not hear him say, "There are plenty willing to die, and I will lead them if they will follow"—I did not see either of the prisoners distributing pamphlets—I heard the whole of Quin's speech; he was not so long speaking as Cantwell—the first words he said were, "I stand here as a Christian Anarchist," and he went on to speak of the orphans of those who lost their lives in building the bridge which was going to be opened the following day, and quoted a few lines from Edward Carpenter and Shelley, and some Biblical quotations in reference to Christ—he said he was a Christian Anarchist, and that Christ said, "Suffer little children to come unto me," and he was only speaking on behalf of the helpless orphans and widows—I did not hear him say, "Further than France we shall be heard of again"—I never heard any justification from either of them of the assassination of Carnot—I did not hear the word "bomb," or "I hate the Royal Family"—he did not, at the end of his speech, say, "D—the Queen."

Cross-examined by MR. MATHEWS. I was in a shop on Tower Hill at one o'clock; I reckon I was there about 1.30 or 1.35—the meeting seemed to increase, because I took the outside ring at first, and when there was an interruption I looked round and saw people at the back of me—the interruption came from a quarter of the crowd concentrated in a particular corner; the interruptions were hostile to the speakers, and the demonstrations in their favour—the first interruption was "How about Carnot?" shouted very loud—Cantwell, who was speaking, replied, "There are fanatics in every cause, and I am not here to speak for such"—he went on speaking and dwelling on the fact that men had lost their lives, and said he could not imagine a more horrible bondage; even a hero lost his life in obtaining bread for his children—I cannot say that I heard much hostile demonstration, and there would have been none if it had not been for the interruptions—I think the majority of the men there wanted to hear what was to he said—the speakers did not refer to bombs except to ask if they could find the word in any literature which came from them, and no answer came—I have not read the pamphlet, of which he had some dozen copies on him—Cantwell was the first speaker; he got down from the wall, and then Quin got up—there were a lot hanging on the wall, and I should not be surprised if he was jostled down—the crowd did hot move towards the parapet with a view of tearing him off the wall—I did not see them make for him—I do not remember hearing the words, "The Government of France has been oppressive, and our Government will have to be seen to the same way to come to the working classes"—I cannot swear it was not said; I cannot remember everything; I have got my living to get—I heard the whole of Quin's speech—I heard him say with regard to France that he quite agreed with his comrade with reference to that dastardly dead in France; as a Christian he felt bound to do so—he said that he entirely endorsed all that had been said by Cantwell—I swear he did not say, "We have been heard of in France, and we will be heard of here to-morrow, again and again"—I listened very intently, and I assure you I could not hear a word to call forth anger from anyone, and I was very much surprised at the crowd—it was only a small minority of the crowd who were angry with Cantwell—Quin did not speak so long as Cantwell—I did not see Cantwell pulled off the wall—I have very convenient eyes; they have always been very convenient to me, and I am very proud of them—I did not see Cantwell run away or see the crowd follow; they stood on the parapet and behind the parapet as well, and it was impossible to see who was behind the wall—I was in front—I did not see either of the prisoners run away and the crowd follow them; I went straight away about my work—someone rushed at a speaker last night, but he was drunk—I do not suggest these persons were drunk—when they get a manly, straight-forward answer, I say it is a manly duty to be silent—I sympathise with the speakers—I did not hear Justice Hawkins' name mentioned—I did not hear the interruption.

Re-examined. I heard the whole of Cantwell's speech—I should say five or six people interrupted, speaking roughly from memory—they were all concentrated in one corner, in front on the left—Quin described himself, and spoke of Him who said "Suffer little children to come unto me," and went on to describe what He said; I remember it because it sounded so beautiful—I heard the whole of what was said on the platform; I was anxious to know what was coming from persons who called themselves Anarchists, and therefore I was very intent—nobody rushed from the front—of course I plead ignorance of what occurred after the meeting was over; I had my business to attend to—I was in the fourth row from the speakers, directly in front of them.

HENRY SUTCIJFFE . I am a packer, of Clyde Road, Tottenham—I have seen Quin; once he posed as a Christian Anarchist, and explained what that meant—I am not an Anarchist; I am a Radical—he did not advocate the use of force on that occasion; he distinctly said he did not believe in force—that was one Sunday evening in the winter, when he was lecturing at the gas-works; I cannot say the exact date.

JAMES CURTIS (Affirmed). I am a carpenter, but at present I am keeping a coffee-house at 14, Monville Road—I have been acquainted with Cantwell since the end of 1887—he is a very harmless, inoffensive man—I have had conversation with him many times, and have heard him speak in Hyde Park and Farringdon Road and the club-house at Morton—he is a basket maker—I am not an Anarchist, I oppose it on principle; it is very good as an ideal—I am a member of the Social Democratic Federation.
Cross-examined by MR. MATHEWS. There is a party of the Socialistic League led by Mr. Morris, and there is what you call the Commonweal group.

HERMAN DITCHER (Affirmed). I live at 81, Russell Road, Wimbledon—I am a Social Democrat, but in no way an Anarchist—I have known Cantwell six or seven years, and have heard him oppose the war of violence and outrage.

BRUCE WALLACE . I am a minister of the Congregational Union—I became acquainted with Quin by meeting him in London Fields about a year ago, when he was attending some matter in connection with the Ministers' Union, and afterwards at some of the conferences held on Sunday afternoons in my own church—his general character is good as far as I know—he describes himself as a Christian Anarchist Communist.

JOHN COLEMAN KENWORTHY (Affirmed). I live at 6, St. Andrew's Road, Plaistow—I met Quin at an open-air meeting at London Fields last year about September—I was interested in him in consequence of a letter of his which appeared in the Daily Chronicle in reference to a book of mine which had been recently reviewed—I know him as a man who professes Christianity, and takes an interest in social movements—I am an author and journalist.

GUILTY .— Six Months' Hard Labour each.

Link above will provide the text without the added colour and other minor changes/corrections.


And still trying to sort those pesky protestors
Could it have been some kind of collective/folk memory handed down in the Met that led them to take such bizarrely inappropriate action against anti-royalist demonstrators at the same site 108 years later...? (They didn't win that time.)

Trying Again: More Anarchists at the Old Bailey, 1894

Royal Offences > seditious libel, 23rd July 1894.

Fritz Brall's trial ending in a result for the anarchists did not bring an end to police attempts to put some of them behind bars in the aftermath of the Greenwich explosion. On their part, some anarchists were not prepared to disappear or adopt the sort of low profile that might have made it more difficult to pin anything on them. Two activists, Cantwell and Quin(n), were arrested one month after Brall and just before he was brought to trial. As described by John Quail, they had gone to Tower Bridge the day before its ceremonial opening to address the workers who had built it and make the point that they had been exploited and denied credit for their labour, and protest (as you do) against royals getting in on the act. The ensuing disorder, plausibly argued to have been fomented by the Special Branch and its agents, not only allowed them to be charged (with a 'royal' twist to the alleged offence to make the indictment more intimidating) but led to to the month-long occupation by police of the Commonweal offices - both men had been involved with this publication. (Undeterred, both resumed their anarchist involvement after their release.)

The full trial report (edited below) does not add much of substance to the account John Quail gives on pp.180-183 of The Slow-Burning Fuse, (1978). It does, however, reinforce several points he makes about police, in particular Special Branch, persecution of anarchists in London, and supplies a lot of interesting detail about the interactions and confrontations that went on at this time. References include:- 

p.181 Arrest July 1; occupation of Commonweal offices by police until July 30.

p.196, 204-5 Cantwell on group producing Commonweal after release from prison. Accused of sponging, exploiting comrades etc. (with Ernest Young). Evicted 2 Italians at gunpoint. "Difficult" p.206; "finally left Freedom - at least temporarily" Nov. 1897; as printer 207. Criticised e.g. for "contrariness" p.222.

p.203 C.(Carl) T.Quinn described the Anarchist movement as "very dull and sluggish" in letter to Liberty, Jan. 1896. Secretary of Alarm Group p.206; acrimonious circumstances. Associated Anarchists.

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THOMAS CANTWELL, CHARLES THOMAS QUIN, Royal Offences > seditious libel, 23rd July 1894.

Reference Number: t18940723-632
Offence: Royal Offences > seditious libel
Verdict: Guilty > no_subcategory
Punishment: Imprisonment > hard labour

632. THOMAS CANTWELL (28), and CHARLES THOMAS QUIN (24), were indicted for unlawfully soliciting, encouraging and persuading Henry Braden and others to murder members of the Royal Family and others. Other Counts, for unlawfully making seditious and inflammatory speeches, and for publishing a seditious libel.

JOSEPH WELCH . I am a labourer—on 29th June, about half-past one, I was near the tea warehouse on Tower Hill—I saw the two prisoners there, with two other men—Cantwell had a bill in his pocket; he took it out and showed it to the other three who were with him: "Tower Bridge. Fellow Workers. You have expended life, energy, and skill in building this bridge. Now come the Royal vermin and rascally politicians with pomp and splendour to claim all the credit. You are condemned to the workhouse and the paupers' grave to glorify these lazy swine, who live upon your labour. I heard men saying, Leave tears and praying, The sharp knife heedeth not the sheep. Are we not stronger than the rich and wronger, when day breaks over dreams and sleep"—then one of them took some bills out of his pocket, and they were distributed between them to others—they were something like this (Produced), (Headed, "Why Vaillant threw the bomb")—Quin then got on the rampart, opened the paper, and held the pamphlet in his hand—I did not hear what was said.
Cross-examined. I do not know who the other two men were—I know them by sight, and I should know them again—I did not read the heading of the tract; I do not know whether it was anything like these (Produced)—no one told me to come and give evidence—a constable came and asked me if I was on Tower Hill that day.

FREDERICK CAVE . I am a commercial clerk out of employment, living at 77, Whitechapel Road—on Friday, 29th June, I went to Tower Hill to see the decorations on the Tower Bridge, which was to be opened the next day—as I was passing in front of a tea warehouse I saw Cantwell get on a wall—he unrolled a poster of this colour (yellow)—I could read all of it, except the four lines of poetry at the bottom—it was pasted on a piece of brown paper—at first, when he began to speak, I was a little way off—after a little time I drew nearer to him—he was then making a reference to the position of capital and labour, referring to the unemployed, exhorting them to join his party, as they were being deceived by both political parties—he said, "I am very ill, hardly able to be here to-day"—he was asked by one of the crowd, "Are you an Anarchist?"—he said, "Yes, I am; I am proud of it"—further on in his speech, referring to the Prince of Wales and the Royal Family, he used these words, "As for the Prince of Wales and the Royal vermin, I would serve them as other vermin are," and referring to the next day's ceremony, the opening of the Tower Bridge, he said, "As for the blackguard crew who will be on the Tower Bridge to-morrow, they are only fit for bombs"—he then asked where were the widows and orphans of those men who had lost their lives in the building of the Tower Bridge—for anything they knew they would be starving, while Royalty would be feeding—further on he said, "I have fought for the cause; I have suffered for the cause, and I am willing to die for the cause; we shall be heard of again and again "in reference to the next day, and he was willing to lead any who chose to follow him—referring to the assassination of President Carnot he justified it, as having been an act committed in the best interest of the working classes, and asserting that that view was held by Lord Salisbury and Lord Rosebery, and he proceeded to quote from what he said was in a recent speech of Lord Rosebery's to that effect—as soon as the crowd found what were the sentiments and the object of Cantwell they became extremely hostile, and there was a great deal of commotion—it was very difficult therefore to hear all that he said, but I am sure I heard what I have repeated—at last, when he got to the end, there were cries of "Lynch him!"—that was after Quin had spoken—Cantwell got down from the parapet, and handed the placard to Quin, who mounted the parapet, and opened his speech with these words, "Comrades and fellow workers, I fully endorse the able speech which my comrade has placed before you"—further on he was greatly interrupted; the crowd told him they had heard enough; they did not want to hear him—further on, in the course of his speech, referring to the assassination of President Carnot, he said, "Comrades, we have been heard of in France, and we shall be heard of again to-morrow"—he did not say what he was, but he said he fully endorsed the sentiments of his comrade—he held up the Anarchists as being the only sound party, and the friends of the working men—I recollect nothing further in his speech—it was a scene of continual excitement—he was pulled down from the parapet; the crowd raised the cry of "Lynch him! Lynch him! Lynch them!" the speakers—during the course of the proceedings, references to the Anarchist party were met by the crowd with cries of," Shoot them! Shoot them!" and when Cantwell was referring to the members of the Royal Family in the vile language he used the crowd called for cheers for the Queen and the Royal Family, and they were given—Quin was hustled down from the wall, and I saw him and Cantwell run away, but they were so completely hustled by the crowd that I lost sight of them when they turned the corner of the tea warehouse—I lost sight of Cantwell for the time being, but I saw him afterwards—I followed him into Gracechurch Street, and there saw him claiming the protection of the police—Quin entirely disappeared from my sight—Cantwell appeared very haggard, and appealed to the police to save him from the crowd—it was an excited crowd, which blocked the whole traffic—that was the last I saw of Cantwell.

Cross-examined. Q. Where do you live?—A. What has that to do with the case? have been shadowed already, and I shall remove from where I am now living; the address I have given is where I slept last night; I am not employed as a commercial clerk now; I was last so employed in the middle of last September; since then I have had a serious illness; I refuse to answer where I was last employed; I left it from illness—when I first saw Cantwell mount the parapet I was standing on the pavement, opposite Trinity Square—when he was speaking I stood some thirty or forty yards from the parapet—it was about half-past one; I know the time, because I had not long before seen the clock of the Steam Navigation Company—I am not acquainted with Braden—I have never before assisted the police in a case—I don't know who it was that asked Cantwell, "Are you an Anarchist?"—it was a stranger to me—I did not see any pamphlets distributed—Cantwell said that the assassination of President Carnot was fully justified—those were the words—those were the words I used at Guildhall, and he said, "As having been done in the highest interests of the working classes"—I occasionally report for the newspapers; not for any newspaper in particular, any that will take my report—I reported these proceedings for newspapers: the St. James's Gazette, the Evening News and Post—I have not a copy of my report for the Evening News—this (produced) is a copy (The Witness read it)—I did not see who pulled Quin down from the parapet—he did not step down; he had not the chance—there was nothing about "bombs" in the report for the Evening News—if I had said anything about bombs my report would not have been received—I don't know that they do not care for sensational reports; they might think they wanted verification—I did not hear anyone but Quin use the word "bombs"—I took notes of the words he used; the notes are destroyed; you always destroy them when you make out the report, unless you think they might be called for afterwards, and I never had the slightest idea that they would have been—I do not know this report in the Echo of the same day; it is not mine—I stood thirty or forty yards away from the speaker, as near as I can guess; I have not measured—I heard what was said—at intervals, of course, there was a great deal of disturbance—in my report in the St. James's Gazette, there are the words, "blackguard vermin"—I consider that vulgarity; the word "bombs" is a criminal idea.

RICHARD WINSLEY (402 H). On Friday, 29th June, I was on duty on Tower Hill—at 1.30 my attention was directed to Cantwell addressing a meeting—he had in his hand a placard on a piece of brown paper—this is a copy of it—I heard portions of what he said—there were about fifty people there when I first saw him—I heard him say that they intended to make war against the bloodsuckers, and there were men, as they knew, willing to die for the cause, and it mattered not to him how much he was abused, at the proper time he was willing to do the same—I heard a shout in the crowd of "Carnot"—I cannot remember the exact words he used, but he said in effect there were plenty in England who ought to be served the same—he was referring to capitalists and members of the Stock Exchange; and further on, speaking of President Carnot, he said he considered it was a necessity for the interests of the workmen that those persons should be removed—he was there at half-past one, and he got off the parapet at three minutes to two—then Quin got up, and the placard was handed to him, and he commenced to address the meeting—he said, "Comrades," and then there was a great deal of holloaing, and further on in his speech he said, "I tell you we were heard of in France, and we will be heard of again to-morrow, and again and again"—there were cries of, "Pull him off" and "Lynch him"—he then got down—before he got down he saw me writing this down; I wrote it down at the time, and he said, "You think that the police are here for your protection, but you never made a greater mistake in your life; they are kept up by the capitalists to keep you down"—Cantwell, while addressing the crowd, had a small pamphlet in his hand besides the yellow placard—Quin went into a church that was under repair close by; the door was open, and he went in—the crowd was very hostile to him; I think he was glad to get in there—Cantwell hurried off along Great Tower Street—while the speaking was going on I sent for assistance, because the crowd were so hostile—I was afraid the men might get lynched, or something of that kind—the crowd was then about 300.

Cross-examined. I did not make a note of the whole of Cantwell's speech—I made my note about an hour after it occurred, at the station—I can produce it—this is it—I made it for the Inspector—I was not assisted by anyone in making it—other officers had not spoken to me about what had occurred; I was relieved from duty, and had gone home, and another officer was sent after me to make out the report, and I came back to the station and did it—I have sworn to something that is not in this note—I was not told to repeat everything I heard; it is not usual in reports—I saw Cantwell take out a notebook—there was a good deal of disturbance while he was speaking; my attention was taken away from time to time—I can recollect what I heard, the other parts I could not—I did not see any pamphlets distributed—I did not hear either of the prisoners say that the Royal Family should be served like Carnot, not in those words—Cantwell made some reference to a speech of Lord Salisbury's.
Re-examined. I cannot remember the words, but I know the effect they had on me at the time, and a number of others—the effect was that several of the Royal Family here ought to be served the same as Monsieur Carnot.

ALFRED HEWLETT . I was a mail-cart driver to Mr. Allen, contractor to the Post Office, for a year and seven months, and I am a pensioner from the Dragoon Guards—on 29th June I went to look at the decorations on Tower Hill; my attention was called to a small crowd near a tea warehouse—there were about twenty or thirty persons, but it increased to a great number—I saw Cantwell on the parapet, holding a yellow pamphlet in front of him—he said, "The Prince of Wales is coming here to-morrow, with all his pomp and vanity, and the Royal Family to open the bridge to-morrow. Support should be given to the widows and children of the men who have lost their lives"—then he said, "Do not allow him to open the bridge. Do away with the Royal Family, and then you will get your rights"—I said to him, "What do you mean? do you want it all?"—he took no notice of that—I said, "I expect you have got a bomb in your pocket now; it is a pity it will not go off and blow your head off"—I said, "Three cheers for the Prince of Wales and the Royal Family," it was responded to by the crowd—I said, "You should be in the dock in front of Mr. Justice Hawkins, with your pal from Chelsea. I suppose you are one of the associates of those engaged in the assassination of M. Carnot"—he said, "Good will come of that, and the crowd hissed him down off the parapet—after that I went to the corner, and he was giving pamphlets away, of the same pattern as this (produced), "Why Vaillant threw the Bomb"—while Cantwell was distributing the pamphlets Quin got up and began to address the crowd—I took out a card from my pocket, and said, "You should have your likeness taken, to know you"—he went on with the same language; the crowd got hot on him, and he had to get down and run—I kept alongside of him—he ran into a church; I went in and saw him go into a pew—the police went in and he was sitting reading a book; I pointed him out, and the Inspector came in and took his name and address—they took him out at the back door, and that was the last I saw of him—I did not see what became of Cantwell—he ran down Seething Lane way, followed by a number of the crowd—I ran close alongside of him, and asked him what he had done with the bill he had in front of him—he said it was stolen away from him.

Cross-examined. I have no occupation at present—I was last employed the week before last; I left Mr. Allen's on the second day of the year—I was standing against a post at this meeting, only the width of the pavement off—I don't know any of the witnesses in the case—I used the word "bomb"—I interrupted the speaker—I had not been to other, meetings—I have been to Ireland taking charge of a boycotted farm—when I was discharged from the army—I have my character for thirty-six years—I said at Guildhall that I was at Kilkenny—I did not assist in any police case in Ireland—I left my last employment, here I had been ten years and seven months, on account of a little dispute; they accused me of being under the influence of drink—I was fined for it once—I was not a member of the Carmen's Union; I was totally against them; I was asked to join, but I did not—I never got a list of the members; I never mixed myself up with them—I was never entrusted with funds to take care of—I was never accused of misappropriating any; I swear that.

ALFRED WILLIAM MARTIN . I sell guide books to the Tower, outside the Tower gates—about half-past one on Friday, the 29th of June, I saw Cantwell standing on the wall opposite the tea warehouse with a yellow bill in his hand—there were about seventy to eighty people round him—I he began speaking about the Tower Bridge—he said the bridge should be opened by the people; they found the money to build the bridge, and they ought to have opened it, instead of the Royal vermin and political reptiles—somebody called out "How about Carnot?"—he said, "We shall have some more of that here; we have made ourselves felt in France, we will make ourselves felt in London, "or" here"—I won't say he said "London"; I think "here" was his exact word—"No doubt there are plenty of men willing to die, and I am willing to lead them"—that was in reference to the opening of the bridge on the morrow—just a minute or two after that there was a general hue and cry, "Lynch him! Lynch him!" and I began to edge off the crowd—there were about 400 or 500 people there—I did not see any papers given away; I saw some with papers in their hands—I saw one was "Why Vaillant threw the bomb," and what I saw in the man's hand looked to me the same kind of thing—I heard Quin say, "Fellow workmen," and then there was a general melee and I did not hear what he said—I heard no speech at all on the part of Quin; it was simply Cantwell I heard speaking.

Cross-examined. I did not take any notes—I think I have a very good memory, considering my age—I might have said before the Magistrate that I had a middling memory—there was a good deal of disturbance at the close of Cantwell's speech—I did not see anybody distributing the pamphlets—the men who halloaed at them looked like men come out for their dinner, or that class of men—I live at 206, Globe Road, Mile End—I have resided there upwards of six months—Constable 402 came to me, and spoke to me with reference to this matter.
Re-examined. He knew I was there—he asked what I had heard—I told him, and he conducted me to the solicitor at Guildhall, and I gave him my proof.

HENRY BRADEN . On 29th June I was on Tower Hill, between one and two—I saw Cantwell standing on the parapet, holding in his left hand a yellow paper, with black letters on it—I heard him speak—he spoke of the Prince of Wales, the Queen, and Royal Family—he said, "Working men, fight for your rights;" the working men that built the bridge were the persons to open it, and not such a man as the Prince of Wales, who got his money for nothing; the working men ought to share the same fate as anyone else if they put up with the English law; the deeds that had been done were not half bad enough to any extent—there was hooting, and groaning and hissing, and I could not hear all he said—the crowd called out, "How about Carnot?"—he said, "You will hear some more shortly"—he said working men had been killed during the building of the bridge, and their widows and children ought to receive some recompense, but there was only the workhouse—then there was hooting and groaning again, and hissing all the time—I walked down from where I was standing at the back, and came up to the Tiptop tea warehouse, and as I got to the wall he handed the paper to the second speaker, Quin, but I did not hear him speak—after Cantwell got down from the wall I went up to him and said, "You dirty dog, you ought to be ashamed of yourself, speaking in the manner you have; you ought to be shot"—I asked him if he was an Anarchist—he said, "Yes"—I said, "A bright specimen, too"—the crowd called out—he pushed me on the chest, and I pushed him back and called him a dirty dog again—the crowd called out, "Lynch him!"—I followed him across Tower Hill till we got to the corner of Barking Alley, and I said, I Get along, you dirty dog; you are an Anarchist"—he put his hand in the breast of his coat, and I called him a dirty dog again—when I got into Barking Alley the constables forced their way through the crowd, and I left and went to my work—I had been at my work ten minutes when I heard hooting and groaning, and I came up the cellar-flap and saw him going into the Police-station in Seething Lane—that was the last I saw of him.

Cross-examined. I am a cellarman—I said at Guildhall that I had assisted the police—I have on several occasions—that was why I refused my address—I have had several rewards from the police—I don't feel inclined to tell you the assistance I have rendered to the police—there were no Anarchists concerned in it—I think it is everyone's duty to assist the police; I have done so for twenty years—no one told me to come and give evidence; I came on my own account—I was about twenty yards from the speakers on this occasion—I heard Cantwell, not Quin—I had never seen the witness Hewlett before I saw him in Court at Guildhall—I did not take notice of anyone interrupting the speakers—I have never interrupted other speakers—I was on Tower Hill on 23rd July because I come out there to have my dinner every day—I saw people there distributing bills, asking for witnesses—I did not follow them about; I walked about, as I generally do—I told Cantwell he ought to be shot, and not only him, all of them—he pushed me first, and I pushed him several times; three or four times—he did not strike me; I expected him to do so—I did not see anyone else strike him.

THOMAS LOCK . I am chief messenger of the London Produce Clearing House—on Friday, 29th June, I was on Tower Hill in my dinner hour—Cantwell was standing on the parapet, with a yellow bill in his left hand, pasted on brown paper—he was alluding to working men, and speaking of the warehouses being chock full of provisions, etc., which the working men produced for the loafing, idle classes—I saw persons giving out a few small bills—after Cantwell had done speaking Quin got up—Cantwell gave him the yellow bill, and he alluded to the working men—then he went on speaking about the Tower Bridge, and with reference to Carnot, the late President of France, said, No doubt out of a little harm that was done great good will come of it"—one gentleman in the crowd shouted out, "What would you do, throw bombs?"—he said, "Yes, if I did throw bombs it would be for the benefit of the working men, but not the Royal Family; I love the working men, but I hate the Royal Family"—that he shouted out in a loud voice—he said something in between, which I could not remember, because there was such a rowing and shouting—he shouted out in a loud voice, "D—the Queen"—after that he got down, or he was hunted down from the parapet.

Cross-examined. I refused to give my address at Guildhall—if his Lordship wants my address I can tell him where I have been for seventeen years—I have been employed in one place twelve years, and five years in another—I am not ashamed of my name—I did not read the pamphlet—this (produced) is not the one—I have very often heard Quin speaking at meetings of the unemployed—he always used violent language—I have complained to the police, and they have told me that they had no power to take the man into custody from the parapet—I said it was a shame, and the police said it laid with Parliament, not with them, for allowing liberty of speech on Tower Hill—I was greatly disappointed—I never interrupted him—I heard no one else swearing in the crowd—I never use the word, "damn"—I am a Christian; I damn nobody—Quin did not say that he was a Christian Communist, or a Christian Anarchist Communist—I never heard him quote the Bible.
Re-examined. I am ashamed of my address, because I go in fear—I have been visited already by some of these ruffians.

HERBERT STEPHEN TERRY . I am a clerk—about two o'clock on the 29th June I was on Tower Hill—there was a crowd there, and Quin was addressing them—I saw him get down from the parapet—someone hit him, and then both prisoners ran away, and both ran into a church—I saw Cantwell pushed out—I followed him; he ran up Mincing Lane into Fenchurch Street and Grace-church Street, where a policeman stopped him outside a building in Grace-church Street—he dropped this knife; it was shut.
Cross-examined. I refused my address; the police did not tell me to do so—I am not sure whether Cantwell threw the knife away or dropped it—I don't know if it is used in his trade—I saw in the paper that the prisoners were charged, and I came of myself to give evidence—I gave my statement to Constable 708, and I gave him the knife afterwards.

JOHN DENTRY (708 City). About 2.30 p.m. on 29th June I saw Cantwell in Gracechurch Street, trying to get away from the crowd that surrounded him—he had this red pocket-handkerchief in his hand, and he shouted out "I am an Anarchist"—it was a very hostile crowd of 300 or 400 people, wanting to get at him—they called out "Lynch him"—I made my way through the crowd and took hold of him, and asked him if he was an Anarchist—he replied, "You will find out some day"—he had some little papers in his left hand and this red handkerchief in his right hand—I cannot say if these are the same little papers—on going through Leadenhall Market he put them in his pocket with the handkerchief—at the station I charged him with disorderly conduct in the street—the traffic was stopped; the crowd was so thick—Inspector Collins at the station asked him if he was an Anarchist—he said, "Yes, I am"—he was detained in custody—on searching him I found among other things sixteen letters and a post card of 12th May, 1894, to the editor of the Commonweal, 24, Sidmouth Mews—one of the letters is dated June 6th, 1894: "Dear Thomas,—You must get the Weal out, and early, too, else the money outstanding will not be forthcoming.—H. B. Samuel"—another of the 13th June referred to his being hard up and in want of money—another of the letters asked for pamphlets to be sent, "Chances for Socialists," "The Commune of Paris," "Peter Krapotkine." &c.; another letter finished with the words, "Hurrah for Dynamite"—I also found on him eleven copies of the pamphlet, "Why Vaillant threw the bomb," a book entitled, "Songs for Socialists," two memorial cards, "In Loving Memory of Martial Bourdin," some cuttings from news-papers, some unused stamps, and 7s. 9 3/4; d.—he was brought before the Alderman on 30th June, and remanded till the following 4th July, the charge being disorderly conduct—on 4th July he was charged with inciting to murder—I believe Quin was seen at the Police-court that day—he was afterwards charged and placed in the dock for the same offence, of inciting to murder.

Cross-examined. Cantwell had some papers in his left hand; I could not swear to them—I found them afterwards in the same pocket with his handkerchief which he had in his right hand: he was more wiping the perspiration off his face with it than waving it about—I found some of these pamphlets upon him: "Why are we Anarchists?"—they were in different pockets of his trousers and coat.

ELI SALTER COLLINS (Inspector, City). I was in charge of Seething Lane Police-station when Cantwell was brought in on Friday, 29th June—I saw Dentry search him, and the property found on him was handed to me; among other things was this key—I asked him to what it belonged—he said, "It is the key of my place;" he had previously given his address as 24, Sidmouth Mews—I had seen both prisoners before, on Tower Hill.
Cross-examined. The key was handed to Detective Cox with the other property, for him to make inquiries—subsequently the police took possession of the place; I believe possession was given up to the prisoner's solicitor—I have no idea what Cantwell is—I have seen the prisoner at the meetings of the unemployed on Tower Hill—I have heard Quin speaking; they were generally rather violent—some of them were meetings of the unemployed, and some were Socialists mixed with Anarchists—I should not like to say what the distinction between Socialists and Anarchists is.

BENJAMIN HART . I am a picture dealer, of 8, Prima Road, Brixton—in December, 1892, I let the loft, 24, Sidmouth Mews, to Cantwell on a verbal agreement—he paid six shillings a week—he said he wanted the premises as a printing office—I was then in the front part of the establishment, and I received my own rent from him from week to week—this is the rent-book—since then Mr. Pullen has collected the rent; I disposed of it.
Cross-examined. I knew Cantwell as a printer—I believe the premises went into the hands of the owner when I left.

FREDERICK CHARLES PULLEN . I am clerk to Mr. W. D. Pullen, estate agent, of 45, Red Lion Street—I and my brother collected the rent of 24, Sidmouth Mews—I received the rent of six shillings from Cantwell—this is he rent-book, showing that the rent was paid down to 23rd June.
Cross-examined. I cannot say in whose possession the premises are now; we collected for the trustees—we are still agents—I believe the police are in possession of the workshop; I don't know if they have given it up to the proprietors of the newspaper—some young fellow, not the prisoner, came and paid the rent last time—I know the prisoner to be a compositor, or printer.

HENRY COX (Detective Sergeant, City). On 30th June I went to 24, Sidmouth Mews with a key which Inspector Collins handed to me—the door was locked; the key opened it—I was there on Tuesday, 3rd July, between eight and nine p.m, when Quin came—I stopped him at the end of the steps which led to the loft—I said, "What do you want?"—he said, "I am one of the group"—I said, "Will you give me your name?"—he said, "No"—I said, "The place is in the possession of the police and no one is allowed there"—he went away—I afterwards assisted Sager to arrest Quin in the precincts of the Guildhall Justice Room—we asked his address—he said, "5, Whitecross Place, Wilson Street." 

Cross-examined. When Quin came to the Commonweal office I told him I was a police officer—he did not ask me to produce my authority—I have since learnt that by "group," he meant Anarchist group; I did not know he referred to the Commonweal group—I cannot say he did not—he was quite orderly—Quin was arrested on 4th July, when he was a spectator at Cantwell's trial at the Guildhall—the Commonweal office is not now in the possession of the police—I believe it was given up to Mr. Radford, solicitor, of 40, Chancery Lone; I cannot say whether he is solicitor for the prisoner or for the proprietor of the newspaper—I received my instructions to hand over the key to the solicitor—I found on Quin when he was arrested two shorthand notes for sermons at St. Botolph's Church, Aldgate—they were not Anarchist literature; he said they were valuable documents. 

JOHN WALSH (Detective Sergeant). I was present on 1st July at 24, Sidmouth Mews, a loft over a stable approached by a step ladder—I there found a printing machine and a set of type; several copies of a pamphlet, "Why Vaillant threw the bomb," sixty-three in one bundle and sixteen in another; about sixty-five copies of the yellow placard, and a quantity of other literature; some copies of the Commonweal; some pamphlets called, "What Anarchists Want," "The Walsall Anarchists," "Chance for Socialists," "A Talk About Anarchist Communism," "Facts for Socialists," and so on—they exceed two hundred—I found some photographs of Ravachol; memorial cards of Bourdin; this manuscript book relating to chemistry; a five-chamber revolver, loaded in four chambers—there was a couch in the room, which was used for living and sleeping in, as well as a newspaper office, apparently—Sager was with me at this time—the manuscript chemistry book might have been left for the purpose of printing. (MR. MATHEWS read a few extracts from the book)—I see the passage, "Great care must be taken that the oil of vitriol or sulphuric acid be not brought into contact with these explosives, as the smallest drop will instantly explode it"—I brought it away with the their things.

Cross-examined. My knowledge of chemistry is very limited indeed—this manuscript book is written by Mr. Barker, whom I know very well; in my opinion it is in his writing—it is lectures on the general history of chemistry—the name, "W. Barker," appears on the second page—there are a great many recipes for making explosives, but it all has relation to chemistry, so far as I can judge; it does not relate exclusively to explosives—there are three or four explosive recipes in the whole book; there may be several others if the book were examined minutely by a person who understood it—I don't know if any ordinary chemical book would have recipes for explosives—the last line of the Vaillant pamphlet is, "Issued by the Necessity Group of English Anarchists"—as far as I can say I should say that group is the same as the Commonweal group; they are all the same group, and the same membership; there is no distinction whatever—I have never heard that the English Anarchists of the Commonweal group have always strongly deprecated outrage—I never heard that the English Anarchists of the Freedom group always deprecated outrage—I do not know that this pamphlet (produced) deprecates outrage; I have not read it—I know most of the people in this photograph; they are not the members of the old Socialist League—most of them are members of the Commonweal group of Anarchists—I do not recognise anybody in it who was a member of the old Socialist League when the photograph was taken some time ago—I know many of the members of that league—it is difficult to answer whether Socialists advocate outrage—some are very extreme, and some are very moderate—speaking of Socialists as a whole, I should gay "No"—Mr. John Burns, M.P., and Mr. Tom Mann were members of the old Socialist League—I do not know if Cantwell has worked in America—some copies of this pamphlet were found at the Commonweal office two and a half years ago—it is no crime, I believe, to have a revolver in this country, so long as a man has a license; you want a license to carry one, and I suppose that is about the same as having it in the house—I have heard Quin speak several times in Hyde Park—I was present there on May 1st, when a meeting of English Anarchists was broken up—I assisted in keeping the public back from them—I did not assist in breaking up the meeting, nor did I suggest to anybody to break it up—the language got so inflammatory that the crowd broke it up, and if it had not been restrained it would have killed them—I did not strike anyone, I was assaulted myself—Quin was arrested on 6th May, in Hyde Park; I heard the Magistrate dismiss the charge—I took notes of a meeting on the 16th January; I have destroyed my notes—we attended the meetings on Tower Hill to frustrate any attempt to proceed to the West-end or destroy property—we generally take notes and compare them, and then one officer will make out a report and read it to the others, and if it is agreed to it is kept for a record, and the notes are destroyed—this is the report of the meeting of 16th January—at that meeting, Williams, the secretary of the unemployed, announced Quin as chairman—Williams is not an Anarchist—I did not forcibly remove a witness for the defence last Saturday—about twenty persons were standing outside the door, and as I was going out a dangerous Anarchist put himself in my way, and I moved him out of the way with my hand—I did not put my hand on a lady and move her out of the way

Re-examined. At the meeting on 1st May, in Hyde Park, at which Quin was a speaker, very violent speeches were delivered, and the crowd broke up the meeting—at the Tower Hill meeting, on 16th February, Quin said, "Fellow workmen, I have come here to-day as I have a few hours to spare; I must tell you I have employment during the evening, but it is not sufficient to keep me from agitating. Of course, you are all well aware I am an Anarchist, and if you will only adopt our system, and follow the principles of my colleagues and myself, you will soon obtain your object; using bombs and any other destructive weapons you can do something to forward the cause"—I have been present on many other occasions when he has made speeches advocating the use of force; he always does so; it is notorious—his own colleagues would say they never knew him make a mild speech in his life—his speeches are always characterised by inflammatory languagetwo and a half years ago I was present at the Commonweal office for the purpose of arresting the then editor, Nichol, and Mowbray, and seizing the type—Cantwell then opened the door to me—the office was searched—I then found a great many pamphlets headed, "Address to the Army"—it is similar to this.
ROBERT SAGER (Detective inspector, city). I searched the premises, 24, Sidmouth Mews—I produce a list ("K") of the things found; I checked it myself—I afterwards pointed out to Mr. De Jersey, the printer, and his assistant, the things that were found—I found several red caps and some red flags, some fencing sticks and masks.

Cross-examined. The chemistry lecture was found in the drawer, I think; I am not quite sure—I cannot say who got hold of it first; we were all there.
JOHN WALSH (Re-examined). I found the manuscript chemistry book in an unlocked drawer of a cupboard under a printing machine—it was not concealed.

ALFRED CHRISTOPHER DE JERSEY . I am a compositor—I have had about thirty years experience in the printing trade—on Thursday, 5th July, I went to 24, Sidmouth Mews, with Cox, and examined the type and printing machine pointed out to me—from the type, as it was set up there, I printed this impression of this yellow placard—it is not complete—the rest of the type was not to be found there—this kind of type is very often borrowed by these small printing offices—I say this I printed is the same as the yellow placard in a skeleton form—I took these pulls from twenty four stereotype plates I found there—among them is a pamphlet of two pages, headed. "An Address to the Army"—I also pulled off other pamphlets—I found the type there in case, not set up, for printing the body of the pamphlet, "Why Vaillant threw the bomb," but not for the head or subhead of it. 

Cross-examined. I did not find the type for the skeleton placard set up, but it was scattered about on the premises, some on the floor, some in a box—the last line, "the lazy swine," was in case, thrown in together—I set it up—more than one piece of yellow paper was produced by the police, and I was told to use it to print this—there is hardly a letter in this poster that I could produce from the printing office at which I am engaged—I would rather not state the name of it—I do posters and every class of work—the yellow paper was in the office when I went there—I did not find the ornamental line at the office—I had to print the imitation placard by doubling the paper, and printing with two separate formes and two impressions—unless that were done in a proper manner you would have a set-off—there is a set-off in this placard of the words rascally politicians"—if it were not folded properly it might not come true; but you can make it come true—it would be a slow process; it is an old fashioned press—if only a few numbers were required you could print the placard in the press I found in the office—I feel quite sure this was printed in this press—I do not consider a compositor responsible for everything in a printing office—the Vaillant pamphlet is printed in four kinds of type—I only saw one kind of type for the principal part of the pamphlet, two pages—I did not find the type for the third or fourth pages—I never gave evidence for the police before this case—the type I did find was very common in printing offices. 

JOHN DAVIDSON (Detective Inspector, City). On 14th July I was present at the Guildhall Police-court when Quin was arrested—he gave his address as 5, Whitecross Place, Wilson Street—I went there and searched his lodgings—I found nothing bearing on this case.
Cross-examined. I found some tracts, which Quin's brother claimed as his property.

[Part 2, the Defence, follows]